Scientific Theory

Evolution is a Metatheory

Evolution, as it is taught today in grades K-12 and at the university level, is no longer a biological theory; evolution is a metatheory. I talk about this in my book: Evolution Myths: A Critical View of Neo-Darwinism. Evolution can be found in not only the physical sciences, but also the natural sciences. Evolution has a far reaching influence, outside of biology.

Why is Evolution a Metatheory? 

Evolution as a metatheory can be found almost everywhere in academic circles: natural sciences, social sciences and philosophy. Committed Darwinists even try to explain human communication and language in terms of evolutionary theory. Those that support evolution claim that it is a metatheory, an origin story – a theory of everything.

For the committed Darwinist, God is an illusion. In other words, there is no spirit, there is no soul. Therefore, the study of religion, or metaphysics is not allowed.

Reductionism Claims that Evolution is the Cause of Everything

Evolutionary geologist Donald Prothero (2007) argues that “reductionism” is a “central tenant” of evolution (p. 94). What does Prothero mean by reductionism? Prothereo means that everything that we can observe empirically and everything that we cannot observe directly (such as mind), exists because of evolution! In short, Prothero believes that evolution is the cause of everything!

Here is how Merriam-Webster dictionary.com defines reductionism:

explanation of complex life-science processes and phenomena in terms of the laws of physics and chemistry; also : a theory or doctrine that complete reductionism is possible

(Merriam-Webster, n.d.)

Reductionism is more of a philosophy than a scientifically verifiable theory. For example there is no scientific test for human consciousness. Do brain waves define consciousness? How do we explain stories of people that come back to life after having no brain waves” Where did they go? Where is exactly in the brain is consciousness? How does the brain produce emotions and self awareness?

Evolution Cannot Explain Consciousness

Philosopher David Chalmers (2002) summarized the problem of understanding consciousness:

There is nothing we know about more directly than consciousness, but it is extraordinarily hard to reconcile it with everything else we know. Why does it exist? What does it do? How could it possibly arise from neural processes in the brain? These questions are among the most intriguing in all of science.

(Chalmers, 2002, p. 90)

After his discover of DNA with others, Francis Crick studied the human consciousness. His goal was to define human consciousness scientifically. He was not able to do so.

Evolution, Cannot Explain Language

How did human language develop? When were the first words spoken? Who spoke those first words? How is human language different than animals communicating with one another?

The Bible and other extra-scientific sources give various metaphysical explanations for language. In the Book of Genesis, God created the first man Adam. God created Adam and communicated with Adam with language. This can neither be proven, nor dis-proven through the scientific method. No one can go back in time to observe if such an event occurred.

Human communication is different than communication between animals, Human beings posses metacognition. Metacognition is the ability to think, about the thoughts of others. A good example is reading a book. When we read a book we are thinking (reading and interpreting the text). While we are reading a book we are also thinking about what the writer is saying. For example, when you read a book: Do you agree or disagree with the points, or observations that the writer makes?

Animals Don’t Read Books

Have you ever seen an animal reading a book, or discussing its meaning? There is no direct evidence that animals posses the ability to to think about the thoughts of other animals.

If a Darwinist tells a compelling story about how humans spoke their first words to each other, non-critical thinkers accept the story, without challenging it! Evolution claims to explain all life on earth from a natural unguided (chance) perspective. Therefore, those who support evolution are committed to materialism – the philosophy that all existence is comprised of matter and motion.

Evolution cannot explain human language, verbal or non-verbal human communication, or semiotics. The advent of human communication was never observed by a single Darwinist! It is not possible to go back in time to run an experiment, or observe the first words that were spoken by humans! The only evidence that Darwinists have regarding human language and inter-personal communication is narrative and stories that they create. neo-Darwinists construct stories to support their theory, where direct evidence is non-existant.

Evolution cannot explain language and it clearly cannot explain the existence of the human mind. Scientists cannot even agree what the mind is, how to define it, or how to study it!

Summary

  • Evolution is a metatheory, because it claims to be an origin story. Evolution claims to be a theory of everything.
  • Humans possess metacognition, the ability to think about the thoughts of others. For example humans can read a book and think about the meaning of the book.
  • Evolution is reductionistic, it makes a claim that all material reality and motion, is caused by the process of evolution.
  • Evolution cannot explain the existence of human language, through any direct observation.
  • Evolution cannot explain human consciousness, through any direct observation.

Questions

  1. In your words, explain how evolution is a metatheory.
  2. How is human communication different than that of animals?
  3. Explain how evolution has become an origin story, and more than just a biological theory.
  4. Why is the development of human language so difficult for scientists to explain?
  5. Are you satisfied that evolution tries to explain all material and non-material things in the universe? (Hint. Examples of non-material things are: conscientiousness, love, logic, reason, compassion, other emotions)

References

Chalmers, D. J. (2002) The puzzle of consciousness experience. Scientific American Special Edition, 12(1), 90-100.

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). reductionism. Merrian-Webster.com dictionary.com. Retrieved 1 Oct 2020 from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/reductionism

Prothero, D. R. (2007). Evolution: What the fossils say and why it matters. New York: Columbia University Press.

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